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Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary: 20th Edition (Thumb Index) 4.29 avg rating • (404 ratings by Goodreads) Hardcover ISBN 10: 0803612079 ISBN 13: 9780803612075. There's more to see -- the rest of this entry is available only to subscribers. Sách cung cấp kiến thức y khoa và giúp trau giồi kỹ năng đọc tiếng Anh chuyên ngành y khoa.Illustrations: This edition ofTaber’sincludes 700 illustrations, 119of which are new to this edition. Home › Forums › Discuss Forum › Artists and Releases › (FB2) Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary | 9780803612075. XV Page 1/10 1029136. taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary, 21st edition (thumb to thrive in the ever-changing world of health care, you need a respected, trusted, and cutting-edge, cyclopedic resource. Davis and Unbound Medicine. View topics in the Entries * section of Taber’s Online. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary 20th Edition at the best online prices at eBay! 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Copyright © 2005 by F A Davis 44273 Davis Tabers: Cyclopedic Medical Dict., 20/e MasterPage Copyright © 2005 by F A Davis short standard 44273 Davis Tabers: Cyclopedic Medical Dict., 20/e MasterPage Copyright © 2005 by F A Davis Editor Donald Venes, M.D., M.S.J (For April) Managing Editor Arthur Biderman Associate Managing Editor Evelyn Adler Assistant Editor / Database Administrator Brigitte G Fenton Contributing Editor Alison D Enright Copy Editors Joseph Patwell Deborah M Posner Ann-Adele Wight Proofreaders James Eidam Joy Matkowski Christopher Muldor Pronunciation Editor Rima Elkins McKinzey (Deceased) short standard 44273 Davis Tabers: Cyclopedic Medical Dict., 20/e MasterPage Copyright © 2005 by F A Davis 20 short standard 44273 Davis Tabers: Cyclopedic Medical Dict., 20/e MasterPage Copyright © 2005 by F A Davis Copyright 2005 by F A Davis Company Copyright 1940, 1942, 1945, 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1965, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1973, 1977, 1981, 1985, 1989, 1993, 1997, and 2001 by F A Davis All rights reserved This publication is protected by copyright No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Last digit indicates print number 10 NOTE: As new scientiﬁc information becomes available through basic and clinical research, recommended treatments and drug therapies undergo changes The author and publisher have done everything possible to make Taber’s accurate, up to date, and in accord with accepted standards at the time of publication The author, editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the book, and make no warranty, expressed or implied, in regard to the contents of the book The practices described in this book may or may not meet professional standards of care in the reader’s community; they may or may not apply to speciﬁc clinical situations and should not be relied upon for their direct applicability; they may have been overtaken by newer or more recent recommendations or scientiﬁc evidence The reader is always advised to research particular clinical questions further and to check product information (package inserts) for changes and new information regarding dose and contraindications before administering any drug Caution is especially urged when using new or infrequently ordered drugs Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Taber’s cyclopedic medical dictionary.— Ed 20, illustrated in full color / editor, Donald Venes p ; cm Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 0-8036-1207-9 (index)— ISBN 0-8036-1208-7 (non index)— ISBN 0-8036-1209-5 (deluxe) Medicine— Dictionaries I Title: Cyclopedic medical dictionary II Venes, Donald, 1952- III Taber, Clarence Wilbur, 1870-1968 [DNLM: Medicine— Dictionary— English W 13 T113d 2001] R121.T18 2001 610Ј.3— dc21 ISSN 1065-1357 00-064688 ISBN 0-8036-1208-7 ISBN 0-8036-1207-9 (indexed) ISBN 0-8036-1209-5 (deluxe) ISBN 0-8036-1303-2 (CD-ROM) short standard 44273 Davis Tabers: Cyclopedic Medical Dict., 20/e MasterPage Copyright © 2005 by F A Davis DISTRIBUTORS United States of America LOGIN BROTHERS CANADA (EAST) 291 Traders Boulevard Mississauga, Ontario L4Z 2E5 F A DAVIS COMPANY 1915 Arch St Philadelphia, PA 19103 Europe Atlanta, Georgia MEDICUS MEDIA J A MAJORS COMPANY “The Yawl”, Ferry Lane Shepperton, Middlesex TW17 9LH England 4004 Tradeport Blvd P.O Box 82686, 30354 Lewisville, Texas Australia, Fiji, & New Zealand J A MAJORS COMPANY P.O Box 819074 1401 Lakeway Drive, 75057 ELSEVIER AUSTRALIA 30-52 Smidmore Street Marrickville NSW 2204 Australia Los Angeles, California J A MAJORS COMPANY 1220 West Walnut St Compton, CA 90220 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Mexico & Central America RITTENHOUSE BOOK 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REPRESENTATIVES LIMITED Michalakis Karaolis St P.O Box 5731 Engomi, Nicosia Cyprus short standard vi 44273 Davis Tabers: Cyclopedic Medical Dict., 20/e MasterPage Copyright © 2005 by F A Davis CONTENTS INTRODUCTION TO EDITION 20 ix CONSULTING EDITORS AND CONSULTANTS xi TABER’S FEATURE FINDER xiii FEATURES AND THEIR USE xv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xix Illustration Sources xxviii LIST OF TABLES xxxi ABBREVIATIONS USED IN TEXT xxxv VOCABULARY APPENDICES 2373 Table of Contents 2373 Index to Appendices 2376 Nutrition 2378 Integrative Therapies: Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2394 Normal Reference Laboratory Values 2431 Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Combining Forms 2449 Latin and Greek Nomenclature 2454 Medical Abbreviations 2463 Symbols 2470 Units of Measurement (Including SI Units) 2471 Phobias 2477 Manual Alphabet 2480 The Interpreter in Three Languages 2481 Medical Emergencies 2496 Health Professions 2530 vii short standard 44273 Davis Tabers: Cyclopedic Medical Dict., 20/e MasterPage Copyright © 2005 by F A Davis Health Care Resource Organizations 2556 Professional Designations and Titles in the Health Sciences 2564 Documentation System Deﬁnitions 2567 Standard and Universal Precautions 2568 Recommended Immunization Schedules 2579 Nursing Appendix 2584 short standard viii 44273 Davis Tabers: Cyclopedic Medical Dict., 20/e MasterPage Copyright © 2005 by F A Davis INTRODUCTION TO EDITION 20 The world has changed dramatically since the last edition of Taber’s was published Shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, spores of anthrax were weaponized and distributed through the U.S postal system, and several Americans died Bioterrorism and biological warfare, which for years had been considered only a theoretical threat to public health, became an actual menace Diseases such as anthrax, smallpox, and tularemia leapt onto news headlines and into the forefront of social awareness The potential threat of exposure to chemical warfare agents, such as ricin, sarin, tabun, and to radioactive debris (‘dirty bombs’) suddenly became much more real both to society at large, and to health care providers in the U.S and around the globe It is safe to say that many professionals in the health and life sciences communities have both increased their preparedness and become more anxious about incident management In late 2003, a newly identiﬁed, deadly respiratory contagion spread rapidly through Asia and the Far East I was attending a national medical conference when this agent was ﬁrst identiﬁed; speakers at the conference worried out loud that 40 or even 80 million might die of the emerging infection, SARS, within a year, far eclipsing the mortality rate of the deadly inﬂuenza pandemic of 1918 SARS did prove both contagious and deadly, but as a result of strict travel restrictions and quarantines that were put into place, the actual number of affected persons has, as I write this introduction, been limited to less than 9,000, and the number of deaths, less than 800 These numbers are signiﬁcant, but the devastation could have been much worse Remarkably we learned in the same year that West Nile Virus had in just a few short years spread across the entire continental U.S by the summer migration of infected crows and jays, and that soldiers, at war in Afghanistan and Iraq, had been infected by tegumentary leishmaniasis and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever This new edition of Taber’s— the 20th— reﬂects much of what is known about all these modern scourges, and many others Our editorial staff, consultants, and correspondents have combed the medical literature for new and updated information about previously unknown health threats, developing cures, the miraculous discoveries of the Human Genome Project, and many other new approaches to health care, its delivery, and its management We have expanded and updated our coverage of alternative, complementary, and integrative medicine; bioethics; drugs and their use; evidenced-based care; informatics; nutrition; and patient safety This edition of Taber’s has nearly 100 new entries devoted to new developments in radiological technology; and hundreds of columns of new ix short standard 2776 Appendix N7 Nursing Diagnoses Parental Mother’s sleep-wake pattern/emotional support; Parent-infant interaction Physiological Position; wet; fever; Gastroesophageal reﬂux; nausea; Shortness of breath; stasis of secretions; Urinary urgency DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective Verbal complaints [reports] of difﬁculty falling asleep/not feeling well rested; dissatisfaction with sleep; Sleep onset greater than 30 minutes; Three or more nighttime awakenings; prolonged awakenings; Awakening earlier or later than desired; early morning insomnia; Decreased ability to function; [falling asleep during activities] Objective Less than age-normed total sleep time; Increased proportion of Stage sleep; Decreased proportion of Stages and sleep (e.g., hyporesponsiveness, excess sleepiness, decreased motivation); Decreased proportion of REM sleep (e.g., REM rebound, hyperactivity, emotional lability, agitation and impulsivity, atypical polysomnographic features); Sleep maintenance insomnia; Self-induced impairment of normal pattern; [Changes in behavior and performance (increasing irritability, disorientation, listlessness, restlessness, lethargy)]; [Physical signs (mild ﬂeeting nystagmus, ptosis of eyelid, slight hand tremor, expressionless face, dark circles under eyes, changes in posture, frequent yawning)] SOCIAL INTERACTION, IMPAIRED Diagnostic Division: Social Interaction Deﬁnition: Insufﬁcient or excessive quantity or ineffective quality of social exchange RELATED FACTORS Knowledge/skill deﬁcit about ways to enhance mutuality; Communication barriers [including head injury, stroke, other neurologic conditions affecting ability to communicate]; Self-concept disturbance; Absence of available signiﬁcant others or peers; Limited physical mobility [e.g., neuromuscular disease]; Therapeutic isolation; Sociocultural dissonance; Environmental barriers; Altered thought processes DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective Verbalized discomfort in social situations; Verbalized inability to receive or communicate a satisfying sense of belonging, caring, interest, or shared history; Family report of change of style or pattern of interaction Objective Observed discomfort in social situations; Observed inability to receive or communicate a satisfying sense of belonging, caring, interest, or shared history; Observed use of unsuccessful social interaction behaviors; Dysfunctional interaction with peers, family, and/or others SOCIAL ISOLATION Diagnostic Division: Social Interaction Deﬁnition: Aloneness experienced by the individual and perceived as imposed by others and as a negative or threatened state RISK FACTORS Factors contributing to the absence of satisfying personal relationships, such as the following: Delay in accomplishing developmental tasks; Alterations in mental status; Altered state of wellness; Immature interests; Alterations in physical appearance; Unaccepted social behavior/values; Inadequate personal resources; Inability to engage in satisfying personal relationships; [Traumatic incidents or events causing physical and/or emotional pain] DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective Expresses feeling of aloneness imposed by others; Expresses values acceptable to subculture, but unable to accept values of dominant culture; Inability to meet expecta- Appendix N7– Nursing Diagnoses in Alphabetical Order 2777 tions of others; Expresses feelings of rejection; Experiences feelings of difference from others; Inadequacy in or absence of signiﬁcant purpose in life; Expresses interests inappropriate to developmental age/stage; Insecurity in public Objective Absence of supportive signiﬁcant other(s)— family, friends, group; Sad, dull affect; Inappropriate or immature interests/activities for developmental age/stage; Hostility projected in voice, behavior; Evidence of physical/mental handicap or altered state of wellness; Uncommunicative, withdrawn; no eye contact; Preoccupation with own thoughts; repetitive, meaningless actions; Seeking to be alone or exists in subculture; Shows behavior unaccepted by dominant cultural group SORROW, CHRONIC Diagnostic Division: Ego Integrity Deﬁnition: A cyclical, recurring and potentially progressive pattern of pervasive sadness that is experienced by a client (parent or caregiver, or individual with chronic illness or disability) in response to continual loss, throughout the trajectory of an illness or disability RELATED FACTORS Death of a loved one; Person experiences chronic physical or mental illness or disability such as: mental retardation, multiple sclerosis, prematurity, spina biﬁda or other birth defects, chronic mental illness, infertility, cancer, Parkinson’s disease; person experiences one or more trigger events (e.g., crises in management of the illness, crises related to developmental stages and missed opportunities or milestones that bring comparisons with developmental, social, or personal norms); Unending caregiving as a constant reminder of loss DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective Expresses one or more of the following feelings: anger, being misunderstood, confusion, depression, disappointment, emptiness, fear, frustration, guilt/self-blame, helplessness, hopelessness, loneliness, low self-esteem, recurring loss, overwhelmed; Client expresses periodic, recurrent feelings of sadness Objective Feelings that vary in intensity, are periodic, may progress and intensify over time, and may interfere with the client’s ability to reach his/her highest level of personal and social well-being SPIRITUAL DISTRESS Diagnostic Division: Ego Integrity Deﬁnition: Impaired ability to experience and integrate meaning and purpose in life through a person’s connectedness with self, others, art, music, literature, nature, or a power greater than oneself RELATED FACTORS Loneliness/social alienation; self-alienation; sociocultural deprivation; Anxiety; Pain; Life change; Chronic illness of self or others; Death and dying of self or others; [Challenged belief/value system (e.g., moral/ethical implications of therapy)] DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Connections to Self Subjective Expresses lack of: Hope; meaning and purpose in life; peace/serenity; love; acceptance; forgiveness of self; courage; [Expresses] anger; guilt Objective Poor coping Connections to Others Subjective Refuses interactions with friends, family/spiritual leaders; Verbalizes being separated from their support system; Expresses alienation 2778 Appendix N7 Nursing Diagnoses Connections with Art, Music, Literature, Nature Subjective Inability to express previous state of creativity (singing/listening to music/writing); No interest in nature; No interest in reading spiritual literature Connections with Power Greater Than Self Subjective Inability to pray/participate in religious activities; sudden changes in spiritual practices; Expresses being abandoned by or having anger toward God; without hope, suffering; Request to see a religious leader Objective Inability to be introspective/inward turning; to experience the transcendent SPIRITUAL DISTRESS, RISK FOR Diagnostic Division: Ego Integrity Deﬁnition: At risk for an altered sense of harmonious connectedness with all of life and the universe in which dimensions that transcend and empower the self may be disrupted RISK FACTORS Physical or psychological stress; energy-consuming anxiety; physical/mental illness; situation/maturational losses; low self-esteem; blocks to self-love; poor relationships; inability to forgive; substance abuse; natural disasters SPIRITUAL WELL-BEING, READINESS FOR ENHANCED Diagnostic Division: Ego Integrity Deﬁnition: Ability to experience and integrate meaning and purpose in life through connectedness with self, others, art, music, literature, nature, or a power greater than oneself DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Connections to Self Subjective Desire for enhanced hope; Desire for enhanced meaning and purpose in life; Peace/ serenity; Acceptance; Surrender; Love; Forgiveness of self; Satisfying philosophy of life; Joy; Courage; Heightened coping; Meditation Connections with Others Subjective Requests interactions with spiritual leaders; Requests forgiveness of others; Requests interactions with friends and family Objective Provides service to others Connections with Art, Music, Literature, and Nature Objective Displays creative energy (e.g., writing, poetry); Sings/listens to music; Reads spiritual literature; Spends time outdoors Connections with Power Greater Than Self Subjective Prays; Reports mystical experiences; Expresses reverence and awe Objective Participates in religious activities SUFFOCATION, RISK FOR Diagnostic Division: Safety Deﬁnition: Accentuated risk of accidental suffocation (inadequate air available for inhalation) Appendix N7– Nursing Diagnoses in Alphabetical Order 2779 RISK FACTORS Internal (individual) Reduced olfactory sensation; Reduced motor abilities; Lack of safety education, precautions; Cognitive or emotional difﬁculties [e.g., altered consciousness/mentation]; Disease or injury process External (environmental) Pillow/propped bottle placed in an infant’s crib; Paciﬁer around infant’s head; Children playing with plastic bags or inserting small objects into their mouths or noses; Children left unattended in bathtubs or pools; Discarded or unused refrigerators or freezers without removed doors; Vehicle warming in closed garage [/faulty exhaust system]; Use of fuel-burning heaters not vented to outside; Household gas leaks; Smoking in bed; Low-strung clothesline; Eating of large mouthfuls [or pieces] of food SUICIDE, RISK FOR Diagnostic Division: Safety Deﬁnition: Risk for self-inﬂicted, life-threatening injury RISK FACTORS Behavioral: History of prior suicide attempt; Buying a gun; Stockpiling medicines; Making or changing a will; Giving away possessions; Sudden euphoric recovery from major depression; Impulsiveness; Marked changes in behavior, attitude, school performance Verbal: Threats of killing oneself; States desire to die/end it all Situational: Living alone; Retired; Relocation, institutionalization; Economic instability; Presence of gun in home; Adolescents living in nontraditional settings (e.g., juvenile detention center, prison, half-way house, group home) Psychological: Family history of suicide; Abuse in childhood; Alcohol and substance use/abuse; Psychaiatric illness/disorder (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder); Guilt; Gay or lesbian youth Physical Physical/terminal illness; Chronic pain Social Loss of important relationship; Disrupted family life; Poor support systems; Social isolation; Grief, bereavement; Loneliness; Hopelessness; Helplessness; Legal or disciplinary problem; Cluster suicides DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS To be developed SURGICAL RECOVERY, DELAYED Diagnostic Division: Pain/Discomfort Deﬁnition: Extension of the number of postoperative days required to initiate and perform activities that maintain life, health, and well-being RELATED FACTORS To be developed DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective Perception more time is needed to recover; report of pain/discomfort; fatigue; loss of appetite with or without nausea; postpones resumption of work/employment activities Objective Evidence of interrupted healing of surgical area (e.g., red, indurated, draining, immobile); difﬁculty in moving about; requires help to complete self-care 2780 Appendix N7 Nursing Diagnoses SWALLOWING, IMPAIRED Diagnostic Division: Food/Fluid Deﬁnition: Abnormal functioning of the swallowing mechanism associated with deficits in oral, pharyngeal, or esophageal structure or function RELATED FACTORS Congenital Deﬁcits Upper airway anomalies; mechanical obstruction (e.g., edema, tracheostomy tube, tumor); history of tube feeding; Neuromuscular impairment (e.g., decreased or absent gag reﬂex, decreased strength or excursion of muscles involved in mastication, perceptual impairment, facial paralysis); conditions with signiﬁcant hypotonia; cranial nerve involvement; Respiratory disorders; congenital heart disease; Behavioral feeding problems; self injurious behavior; Failure to thrive on protein energy malnutrition Neurological Problems External/internal traumas; acquired anatomic defects; Nasal or nasopharyngeal cavity defects; Oral cavity or oropharynx abnormalities; Upper airway/laryngeal anomalies; tracheal, laryngeal, esophageal defects; Gastroesophageal reﬂux disease; achalasia; Premature infants; traumatic head injury; developmental delay; cerebral palsy DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective Esophageal Phase Impairment Complaints [reports] of “something stuck”; odynophagia; Food refusal or volume limiting; Heartburn or epigastric pain; Nighttime coughing or awakening Objective Oral Phase Impairment Weak suck resulting in inefﬁcient nippling; Slow bolus formation; lack of tongue action to form bolus; premature entry of bolus; Incomplete lip closure; food pushed out of/ falls from mouth; Lack of chewing; Coughing, choking, gagging before a swallow; Piecemeal deglutition; abnormality in oral phase of swallow study; Inability to clear oral cavity; pooling in lateral sulci; nasal reﬂux; sialorrhea or drooling; Long meals with little consumption Pharyngeal Phase Impairment Food refusal; Altered head positions; delayed/multiple swallows; inadequate laryngeal elevation; abnormality in pharyngeal phase by swallow study; Choking, coughing, or gagging; nasal reﬂux; gurgly voice quality; Unexplained fevers; recurrent pulmonary infections Esophageal Phase Impairment Observed evidence of difﬁculty in swallowing (e.g., stasis of food in oral cavity, coughing/ choking); abnormality in esophageal phase by swallow study; Hyperextension of head, arching during or after meals; Repetitive swallowing or ruminating; bruxism; Unexplained irritability surrounding mealtime; Acidic smelling breath; regurgitation of gastric contents or wet burps; vomitus on pillow; vomiting; hematemesis THERAPEUTIC REGIMEN MANAGEMENT: INEFFECTIVE COMMUNITY Diagnostic Division: Teaching/Learning Deﬁnition: A pattern of regulating and integrating into community processes programs for treatment of illness and the sequelae of illness that are unsatisfactory for meeting health-related goals RELATED FACTORS To be developed: [Lack of safety for community members]; [Economic insecurity]; [Health care not available]; [Unhealthy environment]; [Education not available for all community members]; [Does not possess means to meet human needs for recognition, fellowship, security, and membership] DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective [Community members/agencies verbalize inability to meet therapeutic needs of all members]; [Community members/agencies verbalize overburdening of resources for meeting therapeutic needs of all members] Appendix N7– Nursing Diagnoses in Alphabetical Order 2781 Objective Deﬁcits in persons and programs to be accountable for illness care of aggregates; Deﬁcits in advocates for aggregates; Deﬁcit in community activities for [primary medical care/ prevention]/secondary and tertiary prevention; Illness symptoms above the norm expected for the number and type of population; unexpected acceleration of illness(es); Number of health care resources insufﬁcient[/unavailable] for the incidence or prevalence of illness(es); [Deﬁcits in community for collaboration and development of coalitions to address programs for treatment of illness and the sequelae of illness] THERAPEUTIC REGIMEN MANAGEMENT: INEFFECTIVE FAMILY Diagnostic Division: Teaching/Learning Deﬁnition: A pattern of regulating and integrating into family processes a program for treatment of illness and the sequelae of illness that is unsatisfactory for meeting speciﬁc health needs RELATED FACTORS Complexity of health care system; Complexity of therapeutic regimen; Decisional conﬂicts; Economic difﬁculties; Excessive demands made on individual or family; Family conﬂict DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective Verbalized difﬁculty with regulation/integration of one or more effects or prevention of complication; [inability to manage treatment regimen]; Verbalized desire to manage the treatment of illness and prevention of sequelae; Verbalizes that family did not take action to reduce risk factors for progression of illness and sequelae Objective Inappropriate family activities for meeting the goals of a treatment or prevention program; Acceleration (expected or unexpected) of illness symptoms of a family member; Lack of attention to illness and its sequelae THERAPEUTIC REGIMEN MANAGEMENT: EFFECTIVE Diagnostic Division: Teaching/Learning Deﬁnition: A pattern of regulating and integrating into daily living a program for treatment of illness and its sequelae that is satisfactory for meeting speciﬁc health goals RELATED FACTORS NOTE: To be developed; [Complexity of health care management; therapeutic regimen]; [Added demands made on individual or family]; [Adequate social supports] DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective Verbalized desire to manage the treatment of illness and prevention of sequelae; Verbalized intent to reduce risk factors for progression of illness and sequelae Objective Appropriate choices of daily activities for meeting the goals of a treatment or prevention program; Illness symptoms are within a normal range of expectation THERAPEUTIC REGIMEN MANAGEMENT: INEFFECTIVE Diagnostic Division: Teaching/Learning Deﬁnition: A pattern of regulating and integrating into daily living a program for treatment of illness and the sequelae of illness that is unsatisfactory for meeting speciﬁc health goals RELATED FACTORS Complexity of health care system/ therapeutic regimen; Decisional conﬂicts; Economic difﬁculties; Excessive demands made on individual or family; Family conﬂicts; Family patterns of health care; Inadequate number and types of cues to action; Knowledge deﬁcits; Mistrust of regimen and/or health care personnel; Perceived seriousness/susceptibility/barriers/beneﬁts; Powerlessness; Social support deﬁcits 2782 Appendix N7 Nursing Diagnoses DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective Verbalized desire to manage the treatment of illness and prevention of sequelae; Verbalized difﬁculty with regulation/integration of one or more prescribed regimens for treatment of illness and its effects or prevention of complications; Verbalized that did not take action to include treatment regimens in daily routines/reduce risk factors for progression of illness and sequelae Objective Choice of daily living ineffective for meeting the goals of a treatment or prevention program; Acceleration (expected or unexpected) of illness symptoms THERAPEUTIC REGIMEN MANAGEMENT: READINESS FOR ENHANCED Diagnostic Division: Teaching/Learning Deﬁnition: A pattern of regulating and integrating into daily living programs for treatment of illness and its sequelae that are sufﬁcient for meeting health-related goals and can be strengthened RELATED FACTORS To be developed DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective Expresses desire to manage the treatment of illness and prevention of sequelae; Expresses little to no difﬁculty with regulation/integration of one or more prescribed regimens for treatment of illness or prevention of complications; Describes reduction of risk factors for progression of illness and sequelae Objective Choices of daily living are appropriate for meeting the goals of treatment or prevention; No unexpected acceleration of illness symptoms THERMOREGULATION, INEFFECTIVE Diagnostic Division: Safety Deﬁnition: The state in which the individual’s temperature ﬂuctuates between hypothermia and hyperthermia RELATED FACTORS Trauma or illness [e.g., cerebral edema, cerebrovascular accident, intracranial surgery, or head injury]; Immaturity, aging [e.g., loss/absence of brown adipose tissue]; Fluctuating environmental temperature; [Changes in hypothalamic tissue, causing alterations in emission of thermosensitive cells and regulation of heat loss/production]; [Changes in level/action of thyroxine and catecholamines]; [Changes in metabolic rate/ activity]; [Chemical reactions in contracting muscles] DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Objective Fluctuations in body temperature above or below the normal range; Tachycardia; Reduction in body temperature below normal rate; cool skin; pallor (moderate); shivering (mild); piloerection; cyanotic; nailbeds; slow capillary reﬁll; hypertension THOUGHT PROCESSES, DISTURBED Diagnostic Division: Neurosensory Deﬁnition: Disruption in cognitive operations and activities RELATED FACTORS To be developed: [Physiologic changes, aging, hypoxia, head injury, malnutrition, infections]; [Biochemical changes, medications, substance abuse]; [Sleep deprivation]; [Psychological conﬂicts, emotional changes, mental disorders] Appendix N7– Nursing Diagnoses in Alphabetical Order 2783 DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Subjective [Ideas of reference, hallucinations, delusions] Objective Inaccurate interpretation of environment; Inappropriate/nonreality-based thinking; Memory deﬁcit/problems [disorientation to time, place, person, circumstances, and events, loss of short-term/remote memory]; Hypervigilance/hypovigilance; Cognitive dissonance, [decreased ability to grasp ideas, make decisions, problem-solve, use abstract reasoning or conceptualize, calculate; disordered thought sequencing]; Distractibility [altered attention span]; Egocentricity; [Confabulation]; [Inappropriate social behavior] TISSUE INTEGRITY, IMPAIRED Diagnostic Division: Safety Deﬁnition: Damage to mucous membrane, corneal, integumentary, or subcutaneous tissues RELATED FACTORS Altered circulation; nutritional deﬁcit or excess; [metabolic, endocrine dysfunction]; ﬂuid deﬁcit/excess; knowledge deﬁcit; impaired physical mobility; irritants, chemical (including body excretions, secretions, medications); radiation (including therapeutic radiation); thermal (temperature extremes); mechanical (e.g., pressure, shear, friction); [infection] DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS Objective Damaged or destroyed tissue (e.g., cornea, mucous membrane, integumentary, or subcutaneous) TISSUE PERFUSION, INEFFECTIVE (SPECIFY TYPE): RENAL, CEREBRAL, CARDIOPULMONARY, GASTROINTESTINAL, PERIPHERAL Diagnostic Division: Circulation Deﬁnition: A decrease in oxygen resulting in the failure to nourish the tissues at the capillary level [Tissue perfusion problems can exist without decreased cardiac output; however, there may be a relationship between cardiac output and tissue perfusion.] Sélectionnez la section dans laquelle vous souhaitez faire votre recherche hours Monday to.! 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